Education and outreach with our community is a priority of the HydroFrame project. We aim to develop teaching and learning resources that will support a variety of users in delivery of education modules related to hydrology, modeling and computer science. First of these examples is the ParFlow Sandtank Model. Please navigate through this page to access learning resources related to the ParFlow Sandtank Model. The introduction video below is a good place to start. Please check back regularly for more additions!


The questions are listed below with the correct answer noted.

1. Why is saltwater not good for drinking?

a) There is too much salt —–correct!

b) There are too many fish

c) The temperature is too cold

2. Does freshwater contain salt?

a) No, freshwater does not contain any salt

b) Yes, freshwater has lots of salt

c) Yes, freshwater has some salt —–correct!

3. What portion of water on our planet is freshwater and saltwater?

a) Even split 50% fresh; 50% salt

b) More saltwater, but still quite a bit of freshwater

c) 97% saltwater; 3% freshwater —–correct!

4. Where is groundwater stored?

a) Aquifers —–correct!

b) Underground caves

c) Buckets

5. What particle type would water move fastest through?

a) Clay

b) Gravel —–correct!

c) Sand

6. Find the confined aquifer (video choice):

a) Lake/river feature

b) Confined aquifer—–correct!

c) Unconfined aquifer

7. What happened to the water level in wells G and F when you pump 5 units of water out of well G?

a) The water levels went up

b) The water levels went down —–correct!

c) The water levels stayed the same

8. What happened to the water level in well E when you pumped 5 units of water from well G?

a) The water level in well E went up

b) The water level in well E went down a little —–correct!

c) The water level in well E went down a lot

9. Identify the saturated zone, is it (video choice):

a) Leaky landfill

b) Unsaturated zone

c) Saturated zone —–correct!

10. Since we know where the saturated zone is, we can probably find the unsaturated zone, is it (video choice):

a) Unsaturated zone —–correct!

b) Saturated zone

c) Well

11. When we pump 10 units of water from our unconfined aquifer, what happens to the water table?

a) It stays the same

b) It increases—the water table gets higher

c) It decreases—the water table gets lower —–correct!

12. What might help an aquifer bring a lowered water table back up to its usual level?

a) The sun heating the surface of the ground

b) Precipitation—rain, snow, etc. —–correct!

c) Clouds covering the sun

13. Here’s a little engineering challenge. If you were an engineer tasked with building a landfill that protects our water supply as best as possible, would you build it:

a) Well above the water table —–correct!

b) Below the water table

c) Right next to a lake

14. How much water is being stored in the lake?

a) 51 m3—–correct!

b) 7.5 acre-feet

c) 980,000,000 Liters

***these values are approximate and may vary somewhat based on how you adjust the water height on each side, so as long as you selected the cubic meter units, you did great!

15. If you were the mayor of this town, would you use water from well F to provide drinking water to the residents of your town?

a) Everything is fine, drink away!

b) Use a Brita filter and no problem

c) Yikes! This is a bad situation, call in the city engineers to solve this problem and don’t drink the water! —–correct!

***Each correct answer scores you one point! Add up your score and let’s see how you did***

1 – 7: Water Drop—This was a good lesson for you because there’s always room to learn more about water. Keep learning with the sandtank model and work on those water skills! Good job!

8– 11: Water Wise—You clearly know a lot about water, but there are some things you didn’t know yet. That’s okay, you probably know more now than you did before you started! We hope you will continue to use the sandtank model to expand your knowledge. Keep it up!

12 – 15: Water Wizard—Wow, you must have had your 8 glasses of water today, because your brain is hydrated! Now use your water wisdom to tell your friends and family all about groundwater and the importance of protecting th is resource.